An IO9 article worth taking a look at if you are interested in archaeology and what it tells us about the evolution of mind and consciousness.

What do ancient penis decorations say about us?

Enter Spanish researchers Javier Angulo and Marcos García, who since 2003 have devoted thousands of hours to cataloguing depictions of sexuality, reproduction, and eroticism from the Upper Paleolithic, while paying particular attention to prehistoric representations of male genitalia. (Angulo is an MD, PhD in Universidad Europea de Madrid’s Department of Urology; García is an anthropologist and expert in Paleolithic archaeology at Universidad del País Vasco).

When I spoke with Angulo and García about their research, they explained that the paucity of Paleolithic art depicting the human form is one of the greatest challenges facing the study of prehistoric sexual behavior. For example, in a review article published in the journal Urology in 2009, the researchers report that in European Paleolithic art, a total of just 702 full-body human representations (as opposed to partial depictions—a handprint, for example) have been discovered since 1864, and that only 74 of these representations can be classified as unambiguously male, sketches of which are shown here.